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What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a disorder that affects the way your body uses food for energy. The body works to maintain a delicate balance between glucose and insulin. With normal organ function, the sugar you eat in food is digested and broken down to a simple sugar called glucose. The glucose enters your blood stream and travels through your blood where it waits to be used as fuel in cells. The pancreas produces a hormone called insulin that helps to move the glucose into cells. If your pancreas is healthy and functioning normally, it will adjust the amount of insulin based on how much glucose is in your blood. In diabetes, this system breaks down and blood sugar levels become too high.
Pre-diabetes means that the cells in your body are becoming resistant to insulin or your pancreas is not producing as much insulin as required. Your blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be called diabetes. This is also known as "impaired fasting glucose" or "impaired glucose tolerance". A diagnosis of pre-diabetes is a warning sign that diabetes will develop later. The serious complications of Diabetes can begin occurring in the pre-diabetes stages. The most important point is that a diagnosis of pre-diabetes is reversible by making changes in your diet, losing weight, and exercising. 
Type 1 Diabetes
A person with Type 1 diabetes has a pancreas that cannot produce enough insulin to sustain their bodies, some produce none at all. Formerly known as Juvenile Diabetes because it is usually detected before age 30, it is now known as Type 1 and may produce an onset of symptoms at any age. While Type 1 can be caused by a genetic disorder or other theories, the origins of Type 1 are not fully understood. However, all of the possible causes still have the same end result: The pancreas produces very little or no insulin.

Blood glucose Healthy eating, physical activity, and insulin injections are the basic therapies for type 1 diabetes. The amount of insulin taken must be balanced with food intake and daily activities. Blood glucose levels must be closely monitored through frequent blood glucose testing. 
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetics do not have a problem with insulin production; however, the cells in their body have become resistant to the insulin in their blood. Because of this resistance, Diagnosis can occur at any age and the diagnosis of children is becoming a pandemic. Most adults with Type 2 are diagnosed at or around age 35, but it is quite common that they displayed symptoms for years before initial diagnosis. The National Institutes of Health state that 95 percent of all diabetes cases are Type 2. While it can be a result of other factors, Type 2 is generally considered a lifestyle disease. It is usually caused by a sedentary lifestyle, that is, lacking exercise or physical activity, by obesity, increased age and to some degree, genetic predisposition.

Blood glucose testing, physical activity, and healthy eating are the basic therapies for type 2 diabetes. In addition, many people with type 2 diabetes require oral medication, insulin, or both to control their blood glucose levels.
Gestational Diabetes
Gestational diabetes (GD) is an uncommon condition that usually appears in the second trimester and completely reverses after the baby is born.

Similarly to Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes, your body's blood sugar levels get too high because your body can't use glucose effectively. When GD is not controlled, complications can affect both you and your baby. Your doctor will help you work out a diet and exercise regimen, possibly including medication. Developing GD increases your risk for developing it again during future pregnancies and also raises your risk of Type 2 diabetes later in life.

Gestational diabetes occurs more frequently in American Indians, African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, and people with a family history of diabetes than in other groups. Obesity is also related to increased risk. Women who have had gestational diabetes have a 35% to 60% chance of becoming diabetic in the next 10–20 years.